1866–1870: EXCERPT FROM “FRAGMENTS OF HAWAIIAN HISTORY,” BY JOHN PAPA ‘Ī‘Ī

John Papa ‘Ī‘ī was a personal attendant to Hawaiian royalty, including King Kamehameha II, during the 19th century. He was among the first Hawaiians to study with the missionaries, starting as a young adult in 1820, and for the rest of his life went back and forth effortlessly between the two cultures, native and Western. Fragments of…